【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築講座(ネオ・クラシック様式)

前の記事では、18世紀初めから終わりにかけて流行した優美な表現、ロココ様式についてご紹介しました。
今回はその次の流行であるネオ・クラシック様式です。

 

 

 

 

 

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ネオ・クラシック様式とは?


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La Madeleine – Roman Catholic Church by David Merrett マドレーヌ寺院(パリ・フランス)

ネオ・クラシック様式は、新古典主義建築またはクラシック・リバイバル様式、単にクラシック様式とも呼ばれます。
古代ギリシャ・ローマの建築様式のリバイバルで、神殿のような荘厳な雰囲気を持つのが特徴です。
ロココ様式の軽薄さや通俗性、装飾過剰への反動として18世紀後期にフランスで起こりました。

ネオ・クラシック様式の流行の背景には、フランス革命やアメリカ独立、イギリス産業革命に象徴される民衆の時代、革命の時代の精神があります。
ロココからネオ・クラシックへの転換は、優雅な貴族たちのための建築から民衆が作る国家のための建築への転換として採用されました。

古代ギリシャ・ローマの建築様式のリバイバルは、ルネッサンス様式においても行われていました。
18世紀末から二度目(オリジナルを含めると三度目)の流行となったわけです。
ネオ・クラシック様式は「真の様式」と呼ばれて、フランスで起こった後、イギリスやドイツにもひろがっていきました。

 


ネオ・クラシック様式の代表例


ナポレオンが作らせた数々の建築や、ナチス時代の国家的モニュメントに多く用いられています。

■凱旋門(パリ・フランス)


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Arc De Triomphe by oatsy40

 

■パンテオン(パリ・フランス)


Paris_Pantheon_at_night_DSC09526

File:Paris Pantheon at night DSC09526.jpg – Wikimedia Commons

 

■大英博物館(ロンドン・イギリス)


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London British Museum by Victoria Rachitzky Hoch

 

■ブランデンブルク門(ベルリン・ドイツ)


Berlin Juni 2007

Brandenburger Tor by Wolfgang Staudt

 

【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴講座(ネオ・ゴシック様式)に続きます。

 

 

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