【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴講座(ルネサンス様式)

前回はゴシック様式についてご紹介しました。今回はゴシック様式を批判する考え方から生まれたルネサンス様式についてです。

 

 

 

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

 

 


ルネサンス様式


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Chiesa di Santa Maria dei Miracoli presso San Celso by Lino M

ルネサンス様式は、ルネサンス文化の始まりにやや遅れて15世紀初めにイタリアで登場しました。それまで300年も大流行していたゴシック様式がフランス発祥だったのと対照的です。主にイタリアで16世紀まで用いられました。

 

●ゴシック様式のアンチテーゼ

12世紀の登場以来、ヨーロッパ中で流行したゴシック様式でしたが、イタリアではあまり好まれませんでした。ヨーロッパ文化の源と最先端を自認していたイタリア人の反発心もあったかもしれません。「ゴシック」とは「ゴート族の」という意味です。ゴート族はフランス民族のことで、イタリア人が批判的なニュアンスをこめて「ゴシック」と呼んだ名称が定着しました。

宗教改革によって教会権力が弱まり、大商人たちがリードする市民文化が花開いたのがルネッサンス時代。古代ローマを理想とする「再生」がテーマとなりました。ルネサンス建築の構造、技術、素材は多種多様のものが用いられ、建築家の独創性や個性が評価されるようになりました。

 

●特徴1:教会だけでなく公共建築や宮殿にも使われた

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Palazzo Ducale by Tracy

ヴェネチア ドゥカーレ宮殿。

 

●特徴2:古代ローマ神殿の意匠を活用

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St. Peter’s Basilica by Carlos Graterol

ギリシャ・ローマ神殿のような破風飾り、円柱がデザインに用いられています。窓の上部にも飾りがあります。
(バチカン サン・ピエトロ大聖堂)

ルネサンス様式で用いられるアーチは正円アーチであることが多いです。

 

●特徴3:大ドーム

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her domeness by Erik Wilde

ドームの基部に木製の輪をはめることにより、ドームが崩れるのを防ぐ工夫が生まれました。これ以降はバットレスを用いずに大きなドームを高いドラムの上に乗せることができるようになりました。
(フィレンツェの大聖堂)

 

●特徴4:左右対称・直線

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Banqueting House by Steve Cadman

シンメトリー(左右対称)と直線をよく使い、「調和」を表現します。
(ロンドン ホワイトホール宮殿のバンケティングハウス)

次回はルネサンス様式に続いてイタリアで生まれたバロック様式をご紹介します。

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

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