クリスマスの原型 古代ローマの祭りサートゥルナーリア

Saturnalia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  

前回は「古代ローマの宗教とキリスト教の豆知識」を欧米のアートを用いてご紹介しました。 今回はいよいよ、クリスマスの原型とされる古代ローマの祭り「サートゥルナーリア」の話です。

 

 

 

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

 

 


クリスマスの原型 サートゥルナーリア


 公共サービスとしての祭り


Forum_Romanum_Saturn

Forum Romanum Saturn.JPG – Wikimedia Commons ローマのフォロ・ロマーノ遺跡・サートゥルヌス神殿跡(紀元前のものを5世紀に再建)

ローマ時代の権力者たちは市民の人気を獲得するために公共施設や神殿の建設や、コロッセウムでのイベントや祭りを積極的に行いました。

12月17日から23日までは、農耕の神サートゥルヌスの祭り「サートゥルナーリア祭 Saturnalia」が行われていました。ローマ時代の最大の祭りであったと言われています。祭りの時、サートゥルヌス神殿はモミの枝で飾られたそうで、それがクリスマスツリーの原型なんだそうです。

 

お祭り騒ぎ


Escultura_Saturnalia_de_Ernesto_Biondi

Saturnalia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  アルゼンチン・ブエノスアイレス植物園「サートゥルナーリア」 (1909年 Ernesto Biondiの作品)

この祭りが始まったのは、紀元前217年頃。第二次ポエニ戦争でローマはカルタゴに敗北しました。敗北ムードを払拭するために開催された12月17日に祭りは市民たちに大好評で、翌年以降も日数を延長して定着したそうです。

祭り期間は祝日となり、人々は友人を訪問したり、日夜にわたる宴会や馬鹿騒ぎを行いました。学校も休みになり、特別な市が立ち、人々はプレゼントを贈りあいました。

この画像からは、酔っ払ってぐでんぐでんになりながら笑っている楽しそうな様子が想像されます。 (右端には地べたで寝ている人の姿も…)

 

主人と奴隷の立場が逆転


OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Slavery in ancient Rome – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  チュニジア北部の古代ローマ遺跡・ドゥッガDouggaのモザイク(2世紀)

ローマ時代の身分制度には市民と奴隷がありました。市民権を持たない奴隷は人間ではなく主人の所有財産として扱われ、充実した公共サービスを受けることやギャンブルなどの娯楽も制限されていました。

 

Pompeii_-_Osteria_della_Via_di_Mercurio_-_Dice_Players

Saturnalia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  イタリア・ナポリ近郊のポンペイ遺跡に残る壁画 (サートゥナーリアにサイコロバクチをする人々)

しかし、サートゥルナーリア祭の期間だけは無礼講。主人と奴隷の立場を逆転させる習慣がありました。すべての奴隷が解放奴隷であることを示すピレウス帽をかぶり、宴会では主人が奴隷に給仕したと言われています。普段は奴隷に許可されていないサイコロバクチも、祭りの間には自由に楽しむことができました。

ローマの身分制度は絶対的なものではなく、主人が解放に同意すれば「解放奴隷」になることができました。主人によく仕えたボーナスとして解放されたり、奴隷が主人にお金を払って解放されることもあったそうです。解放奴隷の子の世代からはローマ市民権が与えられました。その程度のゆるやかな身分制度であったとはいえ、奴隷が年に一度主人になれる祭りは、さぞ楽しみだったでしょうね。

4世紀以降はキリスト教がローマの国教とされましたが、古代ローマの宗教文化や習慣はキリスト教に同化する形で融合されました。サートゥルナーリア祭もそのひとつだそうです。

 

クリスマスに盛り上がるのは正しい!


6452041153_d20473520d_b

Foxs Christmas Party 2011 by muffinn

日本人はクリスチャンでもないのにクリスマスにお祭り騒ぎをする、という批判は毎年聞かれます。しかし、クリスマスの原型とされるサートゥルナーリア祭自体、宗教行事である以上に「人々を楽しませ、士気をあげるためのイベント」でした。

自然現象の神々を恐れたり感謝したり祈ったりする多神教は、ローマと日本の文化に共通するもの。日本でクリスマスイベントが盛り上がり定着したのも、そのせいかもしれませんね!

 

個人サイトでもクリスマス関連記事を書いています。

 

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

 

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