【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴講座(ギリシャ建築編)

卒業旅行の人気行き先ナンバー1はヨーロッパだそうです。グルメ、ファッション、アートとヨーロッパの魅力は多彩ですが、歴史ある建築も人気の観光スポット。歴史建築の特徴を頭に入れておくと楽しみも倍増!

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ギリシャ建築の特徴


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Hephaestus Temple by Francisco Anzola

ギリシャの古代文明はヨーロッパ文化の源。ギリシャの建築スタイルは紀元前9世紀頃から紀元1世紀頃まで南ヨーロッパで流行しました。中世の建築においてもリバイバルされ、理想の美とされています。

石造の神殿は紀元前7世紀の終わり頃に登場しました。ギリシャ神殿は大きく3つの様式に分かれます。

 

●ドリス式

AWIB-ISAW: Corinth, Temple of Apollo (I) An overview of the ruined 6th century B.C.E. Temple of Apollo at Corinth. by Eric Dugdale copyright: Eric Dugdale (used with permission) photographed place: Korinthos (Corinth) [http://atlantides.org/batlas/corinthus-58-d2] Published by the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World as part of the Ancient World Image Bank (AWIB). Further information: [http://www.nyu.edu/isaw/awib.htm].

Corinth, Temple of Apollo (I) by Institute for the Study of the Ancient World

ギリシャ建築の中では最も古い時代に発生した様式で、特徴は「シンプル&柱頭飾りが円盤だけ」です。
ふくらみのある太めの柱(エンタシス)を用います。柱には20本の溝が刻まれています。

 

●イオニア式

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Ionic corner capital, Erechtheum, Athens, in the British Museum, London by Orangeaurochs

うずまき形の柱頭飾りが特徴。ドリス式と比べて柱が細く、刻み線も増えて繊細なデザインになっています。

 

●コリント式

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Corinthian Column at Temple of Zeus – Athens by seligmanwaite

ギリシャ文明の全盛期に発生した様式で、イオニア式よりさらに装飾的になっています。
特徴はアーカンサス(あざみ)の葉の柱頭飾り

 

●野外劇場

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Taormina Sicily – Greek Theatre by Michael Button

ギリシャ都市国家では高台(アクロポリス)に神殿や中心広場(アゴラ)、野外劇場などの重要な建築を作る習慣でした。ギリシャ劇場の特徴は半円形(ローマの野外劇場は円形)、海や山など周りの自然を舞台の背景のように取り入れています。

音響効果の素晴らしさ、自然と一体となったダイナミックな舞台効果により、現代でも音楽や演劇のイベント会場として活用されています。

 

「ヨーロッパ旅行で歴史的建築物を楽しむ」に続きます。

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