【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴早分かり講座(古代ローマ編)

前回の記事「【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴早分かり講座(ギリシャ編)に続き、今回は古代ローマ建築の特徴をご紹介します。


古代ローマ建築の特徴


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Pantheon, Roma, Italia by PROyeowatzup

ローマ建築とは紀元前1世紀頃から紀元4世紀頃に古代ローマ帝国領内に築かれたものを指します。ギリシャの建築様式をベースにしつつ、エトルリアやオリエントの技術も反映された複合的なものとなりました。

ローマ皇帝の権力の象徴として、市民へのサービスとして、以下のような公共建築が設けられました。

 

●円形闘技場・円形劇場

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Colosseum at Night [135/366] by Tim Sackton

ローマのコロッセウムが有名ですが、その他の都市にも「アリーナ」という名前で多くの円形闘技場・円形劇場が残っています。
ギリシャの半円形劇場が地面の傾斜を利用して作られているのに対し、ローマの円形劇場はアーチの連なりを用いて多層構造になっています。

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Verona Arena (Arena di Verona) by paweesit

 

●公衆浴場

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The Thermae, Roman Villa in the Bay of Verige, Brijuni Islands, Croatia by Carole Raddato

映画化もされた漫画「テルマエ・ロマエ」で馴染み深くなりましたが、古代ローマ都市に公衆浴場は欠かせないものでした。冷水・温水・熱い湯といくつもの浴槽が設けられ、スポーツ施設やボディケア、マッサージなど、複合的な施設でした。

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The Roman Baths by Travelholic Path

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●水道橋

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Pont du Gard, France by Andy Hay

都市に水を引くための水路が水道橋で、古代ローマの土木建築技術の高さをいまに伝えるものです。数十kmも離れた水源から水を引いています。現代も実用されているものもあります。

 

●コンクリート技術とドーム天井

 

コンクリート技術の発達もローマ建築の特徴です。レンガで壁を作り、そのすき間にコンクリートを流し込んで固めることにより、自在な形で巨大な空間を作れるようになりました。目につく表面は大理石を貼り付けたり漆喰で仕上げたりしています。

 

古代ローマ建築はギリシャ建築と並び、後の時代の建築に大きな影響を与えました。
「【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴早分かり講座」に続きます。 

 

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    『ちーゆー』です。1994年から2010年まで海外旅行ツアーコンダクターをしていました。お客様と一緒に巡ったアジア、ヨーロッパ、南北アメリカ、中東、アフリカの国々の思い出や、海外旅行に役立つポイントアドバイス、リタイア後も尽きない世界への憧れなどを書かせていただきます。http://tourconductor-note.com 「元・海外旅行ツアコンの添乗員ノート」