クリスマスツリーの由来

dad’s xmas tree from 2009 by Mark

今回はクリスマスツリーの歴史と意味をご紹介いたします。

 

 

 

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

 

 


オリジナルは古代ゲルマン人の樹木信仰


König-Ludwig-Eiche

König-Ludwig-Eiche – Wikipedia

キリスト教化される以前の古代において、北ヨーロッパに住む古代ゲルマン人の宗教は樹木信仰でした。常緑樹である樫の木は「生命の象徴」「聖なる樹木」とされていました。冬至の祭りである「ユール yule 」においても、樫の木を使う習慣がありました。(現代でも北欧の国々ではクリスマスをユールと呼んでいます)

Bonifacius_by_Emil_DoeplerBonifacius by Emil Doepler.jpg – Wikimedia Commons

ゲルマン民族がキリスト教化されたのは7~8世紀です。布教者ボニファティウスは「切ったら祟りがある」と畏れられていた神木の樫を切り倒して原始宗教を否定するかたわら、ゲルマン人の伝統的な感覚である樹木への畏敬を利用し、樫に代わる新しい宗教のシンボルとしてモミの木を導入しました。モミの木は全体的に三角形をしているため、「三位一体(父と子と聖霊)」というキリスト教の教義を象徴するものと教えました。

 


「知恵の木」としてのクリスマスツリー


1419年に南西ドイツのフライブルクで、パン職人の信心会が聖霊救貧院にツリーを飾ったのが、ツリーをクリスマスに飾った最初とされています。

 

アダムとイブの物語


Adam_and_Eve,_Sistine_ChapelAdam and Eve, Sistine Chapel.jpg – Wikimedia Commons

また、1600年頃に書かれた「シュレットシュタット年代記」に、キリスト教におけるクリスマスツリーの意味が記されました。それによると、クリスマス行事のひとつとして行われるアダムとイブの物語の舞台劇で、「知恵の木」の代用として冬に葉が落ちるリンゴの木の代わりにモミの木を用いたそうです。

初期キリスト教会のカレンダーにおいて、12月24日は「アダムとイブの日」とされていました。クリスマス劇は読み書きのできない庶民に聖書物語を教えるために催されたものです。装飾したクリスマスツリーをかついで街をパレードし、劇の宣伝を行ったとも言われています。

(画像はバチカン・システィーナ礼拝堂に描かれたアダムとイブ失楽園のシーン)

アダムとイブの物語は旧約聖書に登場します。神の作った最初の人間アダムとその妻イブは汚れなきまま楽園で暮らしていました。しかし2人は蛇にそそのかされて神が禁じていた「知恵の実」を食べてしまいます。神に背いた罪で二人は楽園を追放され、男は労働の苦しみを、女は子供を産む苦しみを課せられました。アダムとイブが犯した罪は「原罪」と呼ばれ、二人の子孫である全ての人間は原罪を持つ不完全なものとなってしまいました。

 

 


ツリー飾りの意味


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Christmas Time by SurFeRGiRL30

「クリスマスツリーには宗教的な意味はない」と考えるクリスチャンも少なくないようですが、一説によると、「完成したアダム=イエス・キリスト」や「楽園、天国」の象徴ともされているそうです。

 

オーナメントボール


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chrismas tree by Pilar Diethelm

「知恵の木」リンゴの代わりとしてモミの木を用いたため、リンゴをあらわす丸い飾りがつけられました。それが金属やガラスで作られるようになり、色も多彩となりました。

 

星の飾り


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dad’s xmas tree from 2009 by Mark

ツリーのてっぺんには星が飾られることが多いです。これは救世主イエス・キリストが生誕したことを東方の三博士に知らせて馬小屋へ導いた「ベツレヘムの星」に由来しています。英国などでは星の代わりに天使を飾ることもあります。

 

お菓子やプレゼントの形の飾り


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Christmas by Aurelien Guichard

クッキーやドーナツなどのクリスマス用のお菓子をツリーの枝にぶら下げたり、クリスマスに交換するプレゼントをツリーの下に置いたりする習慣から、お菓子やプレゼントボックスの形の飾りが生まれました。

 

個人サイトでもクリスマス関連記事を書いています。

 

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

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