【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴講座(ロマネスク様式編)

前回の記事「ヨーロッパ歴史建築の特徴講座(2)古代ローマ」の続きです。今回は中世初期に流行したロマネスク様式のご紹介!

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ロマネスク様式の特徴


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Sant Pere de Graudescales by Jordi Cerdà

西ローマ帝国滅亡後、ヨーロッパは異民族との戦いが続き、文化が衰退。建築様式においても目立った進歩はありませんでした。
11世紀に戦乱が収まるとともに文化の発展が始まり、ローマ建築を真似た石造りの教会が建てられるようになりました。
11世紀から12世紀にかけての建築様式をロマネスク様式といいます。

 

●特徴1:半円形アーチ

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Santa Cristina de Lena by Ángel M. Felicísimo

●特徴2:分厚い壁

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Le Jour ni l’Heure 1714 : abbaye de Montmajour, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence — l’église basse, c. 1150, samedi 30 avril 2011, 13:10:41 by Renaud Camus

壁の厚みで天井や屋根を支える構造のため、壁が分厚く、しっかりとしています。

 

●特徴3:小さい窓

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Cabdella (Pyrenees – Catalonia) by Jordi Cerdà

上記のように壁の強度で上部分の重量を支えるため、窓の数が少なく、小さい窓となっています。窓は次の時代に流行するゴシック様式において大きく変わる要素のひとつです。

 

●特徴4:ヴォールト天井の登場

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Porto Cathedral – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

半円アーチを平行に連続させた形をヴォールト(穹窿 きゅうりゅう)と言います。ロマネスク以前の建築では屋根は木造で平らな形が一般的でしたが、11世紀頃から石造りのヴォールト天井が登場し、少ない数の柱で広い空間を作ることが可能になりました。

 

●特徴5:レリーフや彩色

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Barcelona. Església de Santa Maria del Pi by Catalan Art & Architecture Gallery

地方色が強く個性的なデザインもロマネスク様式の特徴です。装飾が少ないものもありますが、柱頭や入り口上部などに細かい彫刻を施したものも多く見られます。

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Le Jour ni l’Heure 1243 : peintures de la nef de Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, XIIe-XXe s., Vienne, Poitou-Charente, dimanche 2 septembre 2012, 17:47:03 by Renaud Camus

柱に漆喰を塗って彩色した教会もあり、色や柄が残っている場合もあります。

The north portal tympanum (c.1160), Bourges Cathedral, Bourges, Cher, France

The north portal tympanum (c.1160), Bourges Cathedral, Bourges, Cher, France by Spencer Means

ロマネスクの教会を見学する時には入り口の装飾の細部まで堪能してください。

 

「【ヨーロッパ観光に役立つ】歴史建築の特徴講座(ゴシック様式)」に続きます。

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    ABOUTこの記事をかいた人

    chi-yu

    『ちーゆー』です。1994年から2010年まで海外旅行ツアーコンダクターをしていました。お客様と一緒に巡ったアジア、ヨーロッパ、南北アメリカ、中東、アフリカの国々の思い出や、海外旅行に役立つポイントアドバイス、リタイア後も尽きない世界への憧れなどを書かせていただきます。http://tourconductor-note.com 「元・海外旅行ツアコンの添乗員ノート」