サンタクロースのモデル 聖ニコラウスを徹底研究!

The entrance of St. Nicholas by FaceMePLS

今回は、サンタクロースのモデルとなったキリスト教の聖人、聖ニコラウスについてです。

 

 

 

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

 

 


聖ニコラウス=シンタクラース=サンタクロース


◆4世紀の実在の聖人

Icon_c_1500_St_Nicholas

Saint Nicholas – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ストックホルム国立美術館所蔵 15~16世紀頃のイコン

聖ニコウラスはギリシャ語・ラテン語読みの名前です。その他の国の言葉の表記・読みではニコラ、ニコライ、クラウス、ミクラーシュ、クロースなどになります。

いずれも、ヨーロッパ各国を旅していると人名や教会名としてよく耳にする名前です。それほど広く親しまれ、大切にされている聖人です。

 

◆オランダのシンタクラースの祭日

Intocht_van_Sinterklaas_in_Schiedam_2009_(4102601633)_(3)

Intocht van Sinterklaas in Schiedam 2009 (4102601633) (3).jpg – Wikimedia Commons

オランダは聖ニコウラスを国の守護聖人としています。オランダ語読みは「シンタクロース」です。シンタクロースの祝日は12月6日で、オランダでは前日からプレゼント交換や祭りを行います。

 

◆シンタクラースからサンタクロースへ

アメリカに移民したオランダ人たちが「シンタクロース」を伝え、アメリカから世界に広がった呼び名が「サンタクロース」となったと言われています。

 


聖ニコラウスの生涯


Heinsch,_Jan_Jiri_-_Sv._Mikulas_udeluje_almuzny

Jan Jiří Heinsch – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia チェコ Galerie moderního umění v Roudnici nad Labem収蔵「施しを与える聖ニコラウス」(1685年 Jan Jiří Heinsch)

聖ニコラウスは、4世紀頃、東ローマ帝国・小アジアのミラ(現在のトルコ)の司教でした。生涯において何度も奇跡を行いつつ人々にキリストの教えを説き、聖人として認められました。

 

奇跡 不朽の体


カトリックには「聖遺物」信仰があります。イエス・キリストや聖人たちの残した衣類や道具や触れたもの、体の一部などを「神聖なるもの」として、教会の宝物として大切に奉献します。

聖ニコラウスが亡くなった後、その体は朽ちることなく芳香を発し、その香りで病人が癒されるという奇跡がありました。遺体はミラに葬られていましたが、11世紀後半にミラがイスラムのセルジュク朝の支配下に入ったため、南イタリアのバリから来た船乗り達が聖なる遺体をミラから奪い、バリに持ち帰って聖堂を建てました。

その聖遺物らしき画像が出ているサイトはこちら。さすがに肉はなくなっていますが、4世紀の人物の骨とは思えないほど綺麗に残っています。

 

慈悲の伝説


◆貧しい人をこっそりと助ける

Gentile_da_Fabriano_063

ミラのニコラオス – Wikipedia

ある日、貧しさゆえに3人の娘を売らなければいけなくなった家があることを知った彼は、真夜中にその家をそっと訪れて、暖炉に下がっていた靴下に金貨を投げ入れました。その金貨のおかげで娘は救われたそうです。

この伝説により、「夜中に家に入ってきて靴下にプレゼントを入れてくれる聖人」となりました。

 

◆無実の罪で囚われた人を助ける

Ilja_Jefimowitsch_Repin_-_Saint_Nicholas_of_Myra_saves_three_innocents_from_death

ミュラ – Wikipedia

冤罪で囚われた3人の将軍が聖ニクラウスと神に祈ったところ、聖ニクラウスが皇帝の夢に現れて釈放を命じ、解放された話があります。これにより聖ニクラウスは「無実の罪に苦しむ人の守護聖人」とされています。

 

 


サンタクロースが煙突から入ってくる理由


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Stuck Santa by Michael Coghlan

「暖炉に下げておいた靴下に金貨を入れた」聖ニクラウスの伝説があり、暖炉の煙が出て行く、外とつながる通路として連想して「煙突から入った」ということになったのではないでしょうか。

また、アメリカの詩の一節「聖ニコラウスが煙突からドスン」という表現が有名になり、アメリカを中心に広がったイメージだとも言われています。詩人はフィンランドの伝承にヒントを得たということです。

 

 


コカ・コーラがデザインしたサンタクロースの衣装


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The entrance of St. Nicholas by FaceMePLS

シンタクラースは赤い司祭姿です。サンタクロースの赤い帽子と衣装はこれに由来するとも言われています。

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Coca Cola Santa Christmas Display by Mike Mozart

アメリカのコカ・コーラのコーポレートカラーは赤と白。オランダ移民により伝わったシンタクロースの姿を見て、「うちの企業カラーと同じ赤と白だ!これは宣伝に使えるぞ」とひらめいたコカ・コーラ社のデザイナーが描いたサンタクロース像が、やがて世界中に広がって定着させたそうです。

 

 

個人サイトでもクリスマス関連記事を書いています。

 

 

スポンサードリンク

 

 

 

 

 

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