【ハワイへ行く方へ!】文化と歴史を学んで旅行を充実させよう!

Hawaii by Ricardo Mangual Photography (Thanks to all the fan

ハワイには独自の文化が浸透しています。それがハワイ人気の要因になっていることは間違いないでしょう。ハワイ諸島を発見、移住したのはポリネシア人です。ポリネシア人は新しい居住地となったハワイにすぐに順応しました。故郷の文化、政治を元にしてハワイの文化を築きあげてきました。ハワイ諸島の歴史とともに、受け継がれている様々な文化が存在します。


ハワイ旅行の前にハワイに関する知識を身につける!


その独特な歴史や奥深さがあるハワイでは、歴史的に見ても様々な魅力の詰まった場所と言えます。ハワイ諸島の島は火山噴火による火山灰で作られました。

今から約400万年前に海底の火山活動によってカウアイ島が誕生しました。噴火は徐々に東へと移っていき、最後に誕生したと言われているのはビッグアイランドの愛称で親しまれているハワイ島です。しばらくの間は無人島となっていましたが、ハワイ島ができた何万年後かにハワイに人間が住むようになりました。最初に定住したのは、マルケサス諸島からやってきたポリネシア人というのが通説です。1100年頃にはタヒチ人が大量に移住し、ハワイの各島に分散していきました。現在では当たり前に存在する、海図や渡海計器等の文明機器が存在しなかった当時、彼らはカヌーやスターナビゲーションを使って渡来したそうです。これらの技術は1975年に科学的に証明されています。

1005103971_4ba34ea799_zCanoeing into Sunset by m.prinke

 

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『ハワイ』には神が宿る


ポリネシア人は森羅万象すべてに神が宿るという思想を持っていました。彼らは身近にヘイアウを作り、その霊力を生活の中に取り込もうとしたのです。また、階級制度も確立しています。王族、神官、平民、奴隷という4つの階級に分けられ、王族がそれぞれの領地を統治していました。民衆にはカプという厳しい戒律が与えられており、それを破った者には厳しい罰則が科せられることもありました。例えば男女が食事を同席すること、女性がポイの原料であるタロイモ畑に入ること、豚肉やバナナを食すことなどは一切禁じられていました。この時代のハワイには、限られた天然資源しかありませんでしたので、多数の生命を維持するにはさまざまな誓約が必要だったと考えられています。

 

今では観光産業が盛んなハワイも鎖国文化だった!?


実はハワイは何百年もの間、外の世界からシャットアウトされてきました。しかし、18世紀後半にイギリスの探検家ジェームズクックがハワイ諸島を発見することで歴史が大きく動きます。ジェームズクックはカウアイ島に立ち寄り、ここから西洋人とハワイアンの交流がはじまりました。西洋文化が入ることはハワイにさまざまな恵みをもたらすと同時に、伝染病や武器なども持ち込まれたのです。このように、ハワイは良くも悪くも新しい文明を受け入れる状況となりました。歴史が変わるときは様々な争いが起こり、ジェームズ・クックはハワイ島民と争いを起こして絶滅します。

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