チョコレート産業発祥の地・フランス南西部バイヨンヌ

引用元:http://cookingintongues.com/2012/04/09/more-pics-from-bayonne-france/

 

 

 

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フランスの地方には、パリやベルサイユ宮殿、ロワールの古城など、王家と関わりの深かった場所とはまったく違った魅力があります。各地方や各街・村については、今後ご紹介していく予定です。

今回は、フランス南西部に位置し、スペインに近いフレンチ・バスク地方の街・バイヨンヌをご紹介いたします。

 

【フランスのチョコレートの歴史】


 

16世紀初め、アステカ帝国(現在のメキシコ)を征服した探検家コロンブスやコルテスによってカカオがスペインに持ち帰られたのが、チョコレートの始まりです。

貴重な贅沢品とされ、口にできたのは原則として王族貴族のみでしたが、修道院だけは「断食の際の滋養強壮薬として飲用が認められていました。

 

スペインはチョコレート製造法を国家機密にしていましたが、16世紀の終わりにはひそかにフレンチ・バスク地方のバイヨンヌに製法が伝わりました。

ピレネー山脈を越えて行き来する修道士がもたらしたとも、スペインを追われたユダヤ人がもたらしたとも言われています。

(公式に伝授されたのは、その数十年後にスペイン王家からフランス王家に嫁いだ王女によります。)名称未設定57引用元:http://espanol.controleradar.org/distancias.php

 

フランスのチョコレート発祥の地バイヨンヌは、やがてヨーロッパを代表するチョコレート産地となりました。

 

【バイヨンヌの風景】


名称未設定58引用元:http://www.euskoguide.com/places-basque-country/france/bayonne-tourism/

 

今でも旧市街のメインストリートにはショコラティエが集まっています。

ラ・メゾン・ドゥ・ショコラの創業者ロベール・ランクスもバイヨンヌで修行しました。

 

名称未設定59引用元:http://www.bayonne.fr/culture-et-loisirs/797-corridas.html

 フランス南西部では夏に闘牛が行われます。バイヨンヌの闘牛場はフランス最古かつ最大のもので、スペインアラブ様式で作られています。

 

 

【バイヨンヌ祭り(la Fête de bayonne)】


名称未設定60引用元:http://www.europe1.fr/culture/place-a-la-fete-a-bayonne-69729

 

バイヨンヌ祭りはフレンチバスク地方最大の祭りです。

スペインのパンプローナ牛追い祭りを真似て、1932年に始まりました。

少数民族バスク人の色である赤と白を身につけた人々が街を埋め尽くす様子は壮観の一言!

昼間から真夜中まで乱痴気騒ぎをくりひろげ、毎年怪我人も出る「危険な祭り」です。名称未設定61引用元:http://www.sudouest.fr/2014/09/23/fetes-de-bayonne-le-maire-propose-les-dates-des-trois-prochaines-editions-1681189-4018.php

 

 

【バイヨンヌのグルメ】


いちばん有名なのはチョコレートですが、マヨネーズ発祥の地、生ハムの名産地としても知られています。

「バヨネーズ(”バイヨン風”ソース)が訛ったのがマヨネーズの名前の由来と言われています。

フランスでは生ハムを「バイヨンのハム」と呼んでいます。名称未設定62

引用元:http://www.sudouest.fr/2015/04/01/pas-vraiment-l-heure-du-careme-1877861-4018.php

 

フランス南西部の周遊には、ボルドーを起点とするのが便利です。

ワインと美食を目的に、レンタカーでのんびり周ってみたい地域です。

 

南西部には「フランスの最も美しい村」も集まっています。また別の記事で紹介させていただきます。

 

 

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    chi-yu

    『ちーゆー』です。1994年から2010年まで海外旅行ツアーコンダクターをしていました。お客様と一緒に巡ったアジア、ヨーロッパ、南北アメリカ、中東、アフリカの国々の思い出や、海外旅行に役立つポイントアドバイス、リタイア後も尽きない世界への憧れなどを書かせていただきます。http://tourconductor-note.com 「元・海外旅行ツアコンの添乗員ノート」